Teaching Moments are a gameplay mechanic featured in The Sims 4: Parenthood. Teaching moments can occur when a child or teen ask their parent for advice or the parent gets a call from the Sim's principal during school hours about what they're doing.
For a teaching moment to pop up, a child or teen can autonomously Ask for Advice or have a parent awnser a call from the principal from their phone during school hours. Here, you can see what the Sim in question is asking about or what the principal is saying, given the choices you are given. Each choice will affect the Sim's character values. By increasing your Sim's parenting skill, you can unlock more options.